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Tag: Caroline Rule

United States V. Greenfield: A Triumph Of The Fifth Amendment’s Act Of Production Privilege; Or Confirmation That The Privilege Can Be Entirely Abrogated By Any Act Of Congress, Or Even By A Treasury Regulation?

By Caroline Rule The Tax Lawyer In 1976, in Fisher v. United States, the Supreme Court first recognized the “act of production privilege” as being a necessary component of the Fifth Amendment’s privilege against self-incrimination. A grand jury subpoena or Service summons does not violate the Fifth Amendment just because documents the

IRS Form 3520, Penalties, And Whether To Make A Protective Filing

By Caroline Rule The CPA Journal December 2017 Edition Whether a taxpayer is required to file IRS Form 3520, Annual Return To Report Transactions With Foreign Trusts and Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts, is frequently unclear, yet penalties for a failure to file can be severe. As a result, although there

Statutory Maximum/Minimum Sentences And Application Of Offense Levels

By Caroline Rule ABA Section of Litigation November 2017 Edition Most federal district court judges are accustomed – even in this age of “advisory” U.S. Sentencing Guidelines (Guidelines or U.S.S.G.) – to sentencing a criminal defendant by first calculating the applicable “Offense Level,” which provides for a range of months of

How Not To Waive Privilege When Consulting Non-attorney Experts Or Professionals

By Caroline Rule Criminal Litigation December 2016 Edition Frequently, defense counsel in criminal investigations and prosecutions – particularly in tax-related prosecutions, but also in many other complex matters – cannot provide effective assistance to his or her client without consulting a non-attorney expert or professional, such as an accountant. The Second

Applying Civil Penalties For Willful Violations Of FBAR Requirements

By Caroline Rule The CPA Journal October 2016 Edition Will the Fifth Circuit Clarify the IRS’s Burden of Proof? District courts and other authorities disagree on whether the IRS must prove willfulness by a preponderance of the evidence or by clear and convincing evidence when seeking a civil penalty for willful

IRS Procedures: Examinations And Appeals

By Caroline Rule BNA Tax Management Portfolio No. 623-3rd July 26, 2013 Tax Management Portfolio, IRS Procedures: Examinations and Appeals, No. 623-3rd, describes and discusses the law applicable to, and the policies and proce­dures followed by, the IRS in the examination of tax returns and administrative appeals of examination determinations. It